Frequent term found in 17th & 18th  century Christian writing to describe the atheist, humanist, socialist thought of those enamored by the French Revolution as well as the philosophies from the revolutionary gutters of Europe at the time. It is derived from the name of the most famous debating club of the French Revolution during the 1790’s. It was the Jacobin Club, led by Robespierre, who launched the “Reign of Terror” (1793-1799) that cost the lives of the French middle class, particularly the provinces of Vendee and Brittany that became vacant of inhabitants because all men, women and children were slaughtered. It was the French Revolution that produced the ideas and systems that Karl Marx refined into Communism. Thus, 18th century Christian writers rightly warned of Jacobin influence and referred to them as “Jacobin” or “Red Republicans” (red for the blood they spilled and Republicans for their misnamed French Republic).